is understood as: 1) technique; 2) a description of the sequence of labor operations necessary to turn the object of labor into a product, and the process itself, corresponding to the described methodology; 3) the field of human activity, together with the totality of knowledge that provides it; 4) general characteristics of activities typical of a particular society; 5) a The identification of technology and technology is typical of modern literature and everyday language. The only currently generally accepted difference is that it is customary to call the material means of activity technology.
but not technology. Therefore, technology can be understood as the sphere of creation and application of technical means. It is fixed and fixed by a “technological map” – a form of technical documentation that records the entire process of processing the product, indicates the operations and their components, materials, production equipment and technological modes, the time required to manufacture the product, and the qualifications of workers.
The equipment is described only to the extent necessary to perform the respective operation. Thus, T. in this sense coincides with technology in its original sense (skill, art). As a special art based on specially developed methods of activity, t. are widespread. In the production sector, anthropomorphic and non-anthropomorphic technologies are distinguished. technical means) reproduce the actions of a person armed with tools.
The latter are based on the interaction of natural processes (physical, chemical, biological) and are constructed in such a way that the transformation of raw material into products is carried out in a natural way, similar to natural processes. Sometimes the extremely lax concept of “high technology” is used. These are understood as anthropomorphic thermometers, in which the utmost simplicity of individual operations has been achieved, eliminating the need for highly skilled labor, as well as non-anthropomorphic thermometers. In the English-language literature, there is no concept of technical knowledge.
It is replaced by the term “T.”, denoting at the same time the sphere of human activity and the totality of knowledge that serves it. Technology and science are distinguished as different spheres of activity that are connected with each other, but at the same time have their own independent paths of development. Technology is associated primarily with the desire for efficiency, which can be achieved both on the basis of true scientific knowledge and without it.
The possibility of achieving practical success in the absence of a scientific and theoretical explanation of the phenomena used for activity means that it is served by a special “practical” knowledge – “how to do something” (know-how), while scientific knowledge is primarily knowledge about “that there is an object” (know-what). “Knowing how” ensures the effectiveness of actions, while the main characteristic of “knowing what” is true or false. At the same time, knowledge of efficiency is also knowledge of truth, even if it is presented in an unusual logical form. It is the true knowledge of what is effective.
The objective knowledge (if any) that substantiates this or that t. can be both true and false. If T. in the proper sense of the word is an activity correlated with technical means, supported by the corresponding “knowledge of how”, then in a broader sense, T. is understood as a general characteristic of the totality of labor actions that are typical for a particular society, subject to some very specific social guidelines . The specificity of t. is determined by natural conditions, the peculiarities of historical development.
which form the national type. An attempt at the most general classification of T. was made in 1988 by G. S. Gudozhnik. The active attitude of man to nature can be directed to domination, the conquest of the forces of nature. The corresponding T. is called intensive. The second option consists in subordinating nature, using its forces in an almost unchanged form – extensive T. These types differ in the degree of effort that society must apply in the course of labor activity, as well as in what aspects of nature it masters. With intensive t., production activity is aimed at mastering the deep, essential aspects of nature, with extensive – at the use of “phenomena”.
The word “Technology” is associated with the words:
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