Which was published by FIPI for the final December essay for the 2021-2022 academic year. You can use these arguments when writing your essay for admission to the exam in 2022.
Literary Argument No. 1 N.G. Chernyshevsky to the composition
Technological progress – evil or good? ” proved that the development of technology is a boon to society. Thanks to the emergence and improvement of sewing machines, the heroines of the work were able to earn a living by honest labor and avoid trafficking in themselves. Vera escaped a marriage of convenience and began to provide for herself. She opened a sewing workshop, in which all the workers were sharers in the same business and had the motivation to develop it. This business has helped many girls to get rid of addiction in the family and in relationships and live well. If technology had not reached such a level of automation of processes, women would still not be able to work and would be at the mercy of domestic tyranny.
Literary Argument No. 2 E. Zamyatin to the composition
Why is technical progress dangerous? E. Zamyatin in the dystopia “We” showed the danger of progress. Technical innovations in the society of the future can contribute to the complete enslavement of man in the state. Total control, machines for getting rid of fantasy and free will, sophisticated torture, means of surveillance and blackmail – all this fetters a person and deprives her of all rights. The main character of D-503 in the final was deprived of the will and ability to think independently, and therefore betrayed his oppositional ideas and became just a cog in the state machine. That is, a person was deprived of his personality and reduced his meaning to a basic function. This would not have been possible without scientific progress and technical revolution, which were directed against their creators.
L.N. In his epic novel War and Peace, Tolstoy condemned war and, using convincing examples, proved that progress in human society presupposes a rejection of the animal aggression of struggle. We can compare the peaceful and military pictures of the life and customs of the people and see prosperity and devastation, life and death, happiness and sorrow. How can you give up one and choose the second? Armed conflicts rob society of the best people like Andrei Belkovsky and Petra Rostov. They bring suffering and injury to all families, because even the Kurgans had a tragic event: Anatol lost his leg on the Borodino field. Can the world develop in such conditions? No. The French army is followed by a string of fires, losses, destruction. And in this struggle there is no winner, everyone just suffered from it. Therefore, war and progress are incompatible.
Literary argument number 3 to the composition
What is technical progress? M.A. Sholokhov in the novel “Virgin Soil Upturned” showed technical progress in business: the unification of people in a collective farm allowed them to throw off and buy a tractor. Technology would free up dozens of hands and increase agricultural production. If earlier all Cossacks, young and old, were involved in plowing and harvesting and received as much money as was enough only for survival, now people could free up time for development and training in order to make their work better and more productive. So, the young girl Vary could now afford to study and work for herself. Gone are the days of night vigils in the fields, the advent of technology marked a new stage in the development of agriculture.
K. Blucher in his story “The Adventures of Alice” tells about the fantastic world of scientific progress. Here people easily fly into space and travel to different planets. Alice and her father flew on a space expedition to bring animals from different planets. They are doing good deeds using new knowledge. Thanks to the progress, heroes can protect rare animals anywhere in the galaxy. However, scientific knowledge becomes not only the property of everyone, but also the cause of crimes. For example, space pirates hunt for the formula of absolute fuel and use the new achievements of civilization for illicit enrichment. Thus, science can give humanity ample opportunities if one treats discoveries thoughtfully and carefully, but it also gives a new weapon to those who are aggressive and hostile. Technologies provide opportunities, but how to use them is up to the person himself, and in this sense, they do not affect our true nature in any way.
Literary Argument No. 4 to the Essay
Is it true that science is omnipotent? Science is not omnipotent and you cannot do anything with its help, disdaining the laws of nature. MA Belyakov speaks about this in the story “Heart of a Dog”. Sharika, whom the famous scientist made out of a dog, still does not become a real person and continues to rush at cats. Despite the efforts of Professor Preobrazhensky, the experiment was unsuccessful, and everything had to be returned back. In addition to the topic of science, an analogy is drawn here with the newly emerged Soviet state, which had a similar approach: remove everything and remake it at its discretion. And it didn’t work either. Science can be wrong, but it is important to admit your mistakes in time, as the hero did.