Fundamentals of Robotics

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Fundamentals of Robotics

Robotics is a relatively new and rapidly developing branch of science that arose from the need to explore new areas and areas of human activity, as well as the need for full automation in modern production, with the aim of significantly increasing its effectiveness. . The use of programmable logic controllers – robots – in space and underwater research and since the 60s of our century and in manufacturing, rapid advances in the field of creation and use of robots in recent years have required the integration of scientific knowledge from a number of Engineering and related fundamental disciplines into a single scientific and technical direction – robotics.

The idea of ​​creating robots, mechanical devices that resemble humans or living beings in appearance and behavior, has always fascinated mankind. Even in legends and myths, man tried to create the image of artificial creatures endowed with fantastic physical strength and dexterity, able to fly, live underground and under water, act independently and at the same time unconditionally to a person to obey and do it the fullest. . difficult and dangerous work for him. As early as Homer’s Iliad (6th century BC) it says that the lame blacksmith Hephaestus, god of fire and patron of blacksmiths, forged golden maidens who followed his commands.

Immediately the golden servants hastened to him,
like living virgins, having
The spirit in the breast contains both voice and power,
Those who have learned various works
immortal gods.

In modern man, these “servants” are certainly associated with anthropomorphic universal automata, that is, robots created in the image and likeness of man.

Robotics theory draws on disciplines such as electronics, mechanics, computer science, and radio and electrical engineering. There are construction, industrial, domestic, aerospace, and extreme robotics (military, space, underwater).

Today, mankind has almost come close to the moment when robots will be used in all spheres of life. Therefore, courses in robotics and computer programming should be introduced into educational institutions.

The study of robotics allows you to solve the following problems that face computer science as a subject. Namely, consideration of the line of algorithmization and prothe grammar, the performer, the basics of logic and the logical basis of a computer.

It is also possible to study robotics in the mathematics (implementation of basic mathematical operations, construction of robots), technology (construction of robots, both according to any standards and assemblies), physics (assembly of structural parts required for the movement of the frame) courses of the robot).

Robot Categories

The handling robot is an automatic machine (stationary or mobile) consisting of an actuator in the form of a manipulator with different degrees of mobility and a program controller used to perform motor and control functions in the handling process. These robots are made in floor, hanging and portal versions. It was most common in machine and tool construction.

A mobile robot is an automated machine equipped with a moving frame with automatically controlled drives. These robots can roll, walk, and be tracked (there are also mobile robotic systems that crawl, levitate, and fly).

Robot Components

Actuators are the “muscles” of robots. Electric motors are currently the most popular motors in drives, but others that use chemicals or compressed air are also used.

DC motors: Most robots currently use electric motors, which can be of different types.

Stepper Motors – As the name suggests, stepper motors do not spin freely like DC motors. It rotates a certain angle step by step under the control of the controller. This eliminates the need for a position sensor as the controller knows the angle at which the turn was made; Therefore, these motors are often used in the drives of many robots and CNC machines.

Piezoelectric motors – A modern alternative to DC motors are piezoelectric motors, also known as ultrasonic motors. The principle of their work is very original – small piezoelectrics

The mechanical feet, which vibrate more than 1,000 times per second, move the motor in circles or straight lines. The advantages of such motors are high resolution in the nanometer range, speed and power that cannot be compared with their size. Piezoelectric motors are already commercially available and are also used in some robots.

Overhead Muscles: Overhead muscles are a simple yet powerful device for providing traction. When inflated with compressed air, the muscles