Emerging technologies

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New (promising) technologies are technologies that represent changes within the field of competitive advantage, technical and social development of mankind. This type of technology is based both on the achievements of recent years and on individual discoveries of the last century, which are still controversial, not revealing their potential. Examples are preimplantation genetic diagnosis, gene therapy, which date back to 1989 and 1990 respectively.

New technological directions can be the result of technological convergence of various fields of knowledge, and evolving systems leading to the creation of new promising technologies and directions. Convergence brings together previously separate technologies so that they share resources and become one, creating greater efficiency. Examples of such areas are adaptive control methods of control theory, speech recognition methods, and the like.

There are many opinions regarding the significance, status and feasibility of various new technologies. Therefore, there are constant socio-political discussions about their consequences for society[1][2].

The history of the emergence of new technologies

Promising technologies and innovative methods have appeared and developed at all times.  At the same time, in most cases, the emergence of new technologies usually leads to the replacement of technologies based on previous achievements, reducing the significance and usefulness of such technologies. One of many examples is the replacement of horse-drawn carriages with road transport.

Examples of new promising technologies

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a branch of computational linguistics and informatics that deals with the formalization of problems and tasks similar to the actions that a person performs[3].

The specificity of the current situation, in addition to the obvious question about the nature of the essence and the creation of intelligence, is given by the lack of a solid base, with the help of which it would be possible to assert that AI has consciousness.[4]

The next stage planned by the developers is the self-learning of artificial intelligence and the development of machine learning algorithms.

Leading domestic AI companies are:

• Yandex (also involved in the development of unmanned vehicles)

• Vision Labs (who designed the face recognition platform)

• ABBY (text recognition company)

superimposing successive layers of material according to a digital model of the product

Combined with other Internet technologies, 3D printing will allow digital drawings of almost any material product to be instantly sent to another person, which will be manufactured on site, which will greatly speed up the purchase of goods on online platforms.

A special 3D printer is used to output three-dimensional data. The device allows you to display various information that is converted into physical objects.[5] The technology is based on the principle of layer-by-layer creation, growing a solid model. The 3D printing process was first developed and introduced by Chuck Hull in 1984.

Printers that create objects by gluing or melting material. Printers that use the method of pouring and spraying material in the manufacture of objects.

Currently, there are no vaccines that can prevent this disease in general. However, scientists are making every effort to find the means to combat the disease.[6]

To synthesize a vaccine, samples of immune cells are taken from patients and activated using special antigens. Today, in most cases, researchers use decoy protein inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy. So the cells become visible to the body and the likelihood of fighting the disease increases.

Test tube meat

Test-tube meat, also known as artificial meat, is meat that is created in the laboratory, in the form of a cell culture, which has never been part of a full-fledged biological animal.

One of the problems that has yet to be solved is the expensive cost[8] of the finished product due to the technologies for its production.


Nanotechnology is a field of fundamental and applied science that studies the regularities of chemical and physical structures with a length of the order of several nanometers or fractions of a nanometer. It is used to obtain materials with unique physical and chemical properties.

At present, nanotechnology as a promising scientific field opens up many directions in the development of information technologies, methods for obtaining and processing materials, environmental protection, medicine, aviation and space industry.[9]

There are three main directions in the nanotechnology industry, which correlate with each other. Development of nanomachines and robot mechanisms, manipulation of atoms and molecular systems, production of electronic spheres (including volume ones).


Robotics is a branch that deals with the development, creation, operation of machines and devices programmed to independently perform specific tasks.

In Russia, the direction associated with robotics is quite promising.[10] New structures and applications of this advanced technology are being formed.

Debates related to the advent of new technologies

Promising technologies can bring a lot into society and state-economic processes in the future. However, due to the fact that the above type of technology is currently not fully developed and has not revealed its full potential, many tend to question and even fear these processes.

Thus, with the constant development of social networks, the number of crimes related to the illegal distribution of personal information, discrimination and virtual fraud is increasing.[11]

The influence of artificial intelligence is also ambiguous. On the one hand, a deep study of the sphere contributes to the improvement of infrastructure. On the other hand, previously unknown problems arise. Who is responsible for AI actions? Is the concept of the “black box” relevant and can it be abandoned?  So, test-tube meat is a significant analogue for vegetarians and people with intolerance to animal products. Moreover, the cancer vaccine may become an important part of the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients in the future.

Promising technologies can greatly facilitate life processes, increase the level of education and introduce new methods of production and provision of goods and services.