Experts from the Technology Review portal have compiled an annual list of breakthrough technologies for 2023 that are aimed at solving important problems. The experts explain that when compiling the list, they tried to avoid including gadgets in the list, and focused on technologies that can really change the life around. Below we describe these technologies in more detail.
1. Hacker-proof Internet
A team of scientists led by Stephanie Wiener, from Delft University of Technology, is creating a network that connects four cities in the Netherlands using quantum technology. Messages sent over this network will be protected from being hacked by hackers.
Over the past few years, scientists have learned how to transmit photons over fiber optic cable so that information is completely protected.
A team of scientists in China has used similar technology to build a 2,000-kilometer network between Beijing and Shanghai. However, part of it depends on traditional components that pose a risk of hacking.
2. Personalized medical services
It often happens that a child suffers from a very rare disease for which there is no cure anywhere in the world, because it is too rare to invest in its treatment.
However, the situation is changing. Scientists are developing drugs that can be modified depending on a person’s genes. If a disease arises due to genetic mutations, then there is a chance to cure it.
3. Electronic money
There have been talks about creating an electronic currency for a long time – for example, Facebook announced the creation of Libra electronic money. In addition, China also announced its intention to create its own electronic currency. It is believed that it is China that can become the first major power to actually create an electronic analogue of money.
4. Anti-aging drugs
The first anti-aging drugs are already being tested. These drugs will not prolong life. They are aimed at preventing the occurrence of various diseases by slowing down the natural aging process.
The drugs are called senolytics. They work in such a way that they remove certain cells that accumulate in the body as we age.
5. Molecules that are detected by artificial intelligence
Scientists have long wondered about molecules that could potentially be turned into drugs. New machine computing tools can analyze large databases of molecules to determine their properties and, using this information, find new opportunities.
6. Mega-complexes of satellites
Satellite launches are becoming more budget-friendly, which means that more satellites will soon be launched to improve communications on Earth.
Satellites are now smaller, making launching them more financially feasible. Complexes of small satellites will help even the poorest people on the planet to get access to the Internet, experts say.
7. Quantum Supremacy
Quantum computers store and process data differently than we are used to. In theory, they can do tasks that even the most powerful classical computers can’t, including deciphering cryptographic codes or simulating the behavior of certain molecules.
There are already working quantum computers in the world, but only under certain conditions can they demonstrate superiority over classical computers. Last October, Google demonstrated this superiority. However, this was only a demo version, and at the moment the company is faced with the task of building a computer that would solve useful problems.
8. Miniature artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence developers face a challenge: in an attempt to build more powerful algorithms, they use more and more data and computing resources, they also depend on centralized cloud services. This not only leads to an increase in harmful emissions into the atmosphere, but also limits the speed and privacy of applications for artificial intelligence.
However, tech companies and scientists are working on new algorithms to compress existing deep learning algorithms without losing their capabilities. Meanwhile, a new generation of purpose-built AI chips are enabling more powerful computing resources to be packed into smaller devices, as well as training artificial intelligence using less power.
9. Differential privacy
In 2023 the US government faces a major challenge: to collect data on 330 million people in the country and at the same time keep their identities private. Data should be stored in statistical tables that politicians and scientists will analyze when writing laws and conducting research. By law, they must look in such a way as not to indicate specific individuals.
10. Studying climate change
A number of scientists have linked extreme weather, such as storms and hurricanes, to climate change. In the past, scientists have been more cautious in their conclusions about how much climate change has played a role in certain weather patterns. However, over time, more and more often these phenomena began to be associated with climate change.
which allowed scientists to operate with more accurate statistics and understand how natural systems work. In addition, understanding the processes associated with climate change will make it possible to create simulators and more accurately predict adverse climatic events.