Engineering technology is the science of how to manufacture machine parts, as well as how to assemble them into units and finished machines. This science deals with a very large number of questions. If we need to produce any product, then we start with the processing or processing of raw materials, and end with the packaging of finished products.
At the same time, the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of the raw material change (for example, during metal smelting), shape (for example, during cutting), appearance (for example, during painting), etc.
However, the word “technology” means not only science, but also practice, i.e., all those processes in production that qualitatively change the processed products. These processes are called technological. The methods for their implementation are recorded in the form of drawings, instructions, etc. Often such descriptions are also called technology.
Technological processes are developed by process engineers. Properly developed technology makes it possible to produce a large number of high-quality products at low cost. This is achieved on the condition that all the established requirements of the technology are steadily met, that is, the enterprise observes the strictest technological discipline.
There are mechanical and chemical technologies. Mechanical technology deals mainly with changing the shape and partially the physical properties of the processed object, and chemical technology deals with processes that lead to a change in the composition.
structure and properties of a substance as a result of chemical reactions. Mechanical technology includes, for example, cutting, chemical technology, the production of plastics, etc. It is often difficult to distinguish between the areas of mechanical and chemical technology, since they are either combined or combined. In mechanical engineering, mechanical technology is mainly used.
To develop the right technology is to solve a responsible and difficult task. Therefore, the technologist must have a wide variety of knowledge. After all, when developing a technological process, he has to take into account many conditions, sometimes very contradictory.
Modern technology gives technologists a variety of ways to process the same part. Which one to choose? Such that the part can be produced most quickly, productively, most cheaply and so that its quality is the best. Let’s see how it’s done.
Let’s say a technologist needs to decide how to process a ball bearing ring. In this case, the main thing for technology is high performance. Why? Yes, because the country needs a lot of bearings. After all, they are necessary in cars, tractors, combines, airplanes, diesel locomotives, bicycles, machine tools, rolling mills, engines. There are few machines in which there is no such detail as a ball bearing. To give the country as many ball bearings as possible is the first task of a technologist working in a bearing factory.
And he begins to reason … You can take a metal bar of the desired diameter, cut off a piece of the desired length from it, install it on a lathe, process it to the top and cut out the core – you get a ring.
But turning can be done not only on a lathe. The same operation is carried out both on a turret machine and on a bar machine. And there are different machines for this – single-spindle and multi-spindle. All of these machines differ from each other in productivity. On a lathe, the turning of our ring will take 11.66 minutes, on a turret – 7.46 minutes, on a single-spindle semi-automatic machine – 1.43 minutes, on a four-spindle machine – 0.53 minutes.
Of course, you must choose a four-spindle machine. Then fewer machines will be required, fewer machine operators, and hence less factory space. Processing will be cheaper.
But can’t it be made cheaper? The technologist will think about it three times. Why, in fact, was a bar taken to make the ring? After all, you have to cut the core out of it. Time is spent on this, the power of the machine tool, the tool is spent, a lot of metal is converted into chips. And the technologist will refuse the bar, he will choose the pipe.
However, the technologist does not always choose the most productive machines. After all, they are usually the most expensive. If the plan for the production of parts is large, then the cost of acquiring such equipment is justified. And if you have to process a small batch, then the technologist will refuse the machine. He will choose a lathe and just think: “Simple or multi-cut?” More precisely, he will not think, but will count.
The cost of manufacturing one ball bearing ring on a single-cutter lathe is 60 kopecks, and on a multi-cutter lathe – 28 kopecks. The difference in favor of a multi-cutter lathe is 32 kopecks. But the cost of setting up a lathe per year is 8 rubles, and a multi-cutting machine – 104 rubles. The difference in favor of a single-cutter machine is 96 rubles.
The technologist will divide: 9600/32 = 300. “With a program of up to 300 pcs. a year it is better to work on a single-cutting machine,” he says. And if the program is larger, then you need to switch to a multi-cutting machine. With even more – on a semi-automatic. Further – on the machine or on the multi-spindle machine.
But a multi-spindle machine is not the limit of high productivity. If there is no more productive machine, one can be created.
Let’s take another example – the processing of bolts. They are produced in huge quantities – millions of pieces a year in only one plant. On a lathe 1 pc. can be done in 4 minutes, and on a multi-spindle machine – 18 pcs. in 1 minute, i.e. 72 times more. And yet the technologist will refuse a multi-spindle machine. Maybe some other machine is needed here? Not! It turns out that cutting is not suitable here at all.